KarnVir Bohra Shirltess and in Towel
By Associated Press. When Bilqis talks about having circumcised her daughter, she goes back and forth on how she feels - sometimes within the same sentence. The slender year-old doctor defends what is widely known as female genital mutilation within her small, prosperous Shia Muslim sect in India, saying it's a mild version that amounts to 'just a little nick. No harm done. But she adds: 'I have no doubt in my mind that it is not helpful.
At least million girls and women alive today have undergone some form of female genital cutting, according to the United Nations - 70 million more than in because of increases in both population and reporting.
And the U. Faced with this prospect, experts in the respected international Journal of Medical Ethics in February proposed permitting small female genital cuts that 'uphold cultural and religious traditions without sacrificing the health and wellbeing of girls and young women. Sameena's mother, Bilqis, poses for a photograph in Mumbai, India.
The slender doctor, who was circumcised as a child, defends what is widely known as female genital mutilation within her small, prosperous Dawoodi Bohra community in India. Ranalvi remembers when she was 7, her grandmother promised her candy and ice cream. Instead, she was taken to a dingy room in a back alley.
Her dress was pulled up and her legs and arms held down. A sharp pain followed. She came home in tears. She did not understand what had happened until her 30s, when she read about female genital mutilation. India has no laws banning female circumcision, and Ranalvi says the letters she has sent to Dawoodi Bohra leaders have been ignored. The Dawoodi Bohras are an affluent trading community of about a million people concentrated mostly in Mumbai, but also seen across the United States and Europe.
In the winding lanes of a Bohra neighborhood, observant men are distinguished by white and gold embroidered caps and beards. Women wear a long, colorful tunic down to their ankles, and a scarf over their hair. Indian Dawoodi Bohra women are seen here in Mumbai, India. The community has a longstanding tradition of circumcising girls, known as khatna, going back to their roots in Yemen and its proximity to northern and northeastern Africa.
Indian Dawoodi Bohra women, scarves on their head, are reflected on a portrait showing three generations of Syednas, or religious head, in a Bohra neighborhood in Mumbai, India. The Bohras are known for their liberal attitude toward the education of women.
Yet the community is also tightly controlled by an entirely male clergy, with headquarters in upscale Malabar Hill in southern Mumbai. Here, alongside the homes of Bollywood stars and billionaire business tycoons, sits the sprawling Saifee Mahal, the home of the religious head known as the Syedna.
When they reach puberty, Bohra boys and girls take an oath of loyalty to the Syedna, and he has a say in almost every ct of their lives, including marriage and funerals. From Mumbai to New York, medical professionals receive the Syedna's blessings to perform circumcision for girls, known as khatna.
The procedure goes back to the community's roots in Yemen and its proximity to northern and northeastern Africa, where the practice is deeply entrenched. Circumcision has become a battleground for the two Bohra men vying for succession, the half-brother and the son of the former Syedna.
The half-brother says it is time to end the practice. The son, whom most Dawoodi Bohras accept as their new leader, says the tradition must continue and notes that Bohra men are also circumcised.
He declined to comment, but laid out some of his views in an earlier speech. Bilqis says female genital mutilation is just a little nick. Yet she also acknowledges regret and guilt at putting her daughter through a practice the United Nations calls a violation of girls' rights. Activists say the two cannot be compared, because there is enough scientific evidence to show that male circumcision has health benefits.
As the Dawoodi Bohras have traveled the world, they have taken the closely held ritual of circumcision with them. Alefiya, a year-old social worker in the United States, remembers the khatna being done by her grandmother's sister in a cold basement in New York. It was awkward and painful, she says.
Alefiya, who asked for her full name not to be used for privacy, objects as much to the message sent as to the act itself. Older Dawoodi women call the clitoris 'haraam ki boti' or sinful flesh - the flesh that can lead a woman astray. I'm not angry at my mother. I'm angry at the men who make these rules. Bilqis, dressed in slim pants and a sleeveless blouse, comes across as the epitome of the modern Indian woman.
She lives in a swanky high-rise apartment building with views of manicured gardens, a luxury in a city of matchbox homes. And she talks openly about her sex life, breaking a taboo that runs deep in Indian culture.
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She grew up in an observant Bohra family in central India, the only girl among 10 brothers and cousins. Her father wanted them all to get a good education. It was almost drilled into her that she had to become a doctor. It was a childhood more liberal than most girls in India can dream of. I am a smart and good looking girl with 5Ft. My nature is humble caring and fun loving. According to me height does not matter if your husband loves you.
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The educational institute Al-Dars-al-Saifee later renamed Al Jamea tus Saifiyah was built in that era by the 43rd Dai Syedna Abdeali Saifuddinwho was an extremely renowned scholar in the literary field. Syedna Mufaddal Saifuddin. The Dawoodi Bohras follow the Seven pillars of Ismaili Islam adhering to the tradition of Fatimid Dawat: Walayah guardianship of the faithTaharah puritysalat prayerZakat alms-givingSawm fastingHajj pilgrimage to Meccaand Jihad struggle.
The Dawoodi Bohra utilise the versions of the azaan call to prayer and shahada common to other Mustaaliwhich incorporate mention of Ali. Dawoodi Bohras believe that the 21st Mustaali Imam, Taiyyib abi al-Qasim, is a direct descendant of the Islamic prophet Muhammad through his daughter Fatimah.
The Bohra clergy is organized much like a Fatimid government-in-exile, although the exile is one of time rather than geography. Many also have links with Mohammad Rasulullah family as indicated in the family trees right. Islam prohibits Riba Usury and interest; Dawoodi Bohras follow the principle of Qardhan hasana interest-free loans. Numerous Qardhan Hasana fund schemes have been established, many working at the local jamaat level and others working at a national level in various countries.
The funds are generated from contributions of individual members but the bulk amount comes from the Da'i-al-Mutlaq. InSyedna Mufaddal Saifuddin donated more than Rs.
The central rite of passage for Bohras is mithaq, the only major ritual unique to the denomination. This ceremony, obligatory for every Bohra who wishes to be part of the community, is a covenant between the believer and God, effected through his representative on earth.
In addition to spelling out the duties a believer owes to Allah, it includes an oath of allegiance: a vow to accept the spiritual guidance of Syedna wholeheartedly and without reservation. The mithaq oath is first taken at whatever age a child is deemed to have reached maturity: most commonly, thirteen years for girls, fourteen or fifteen for boys. During early puberty, a child will be brought by his or her parents for an interview with the local amil.
The amil asks the youth a series of questions about the Bohra faith, and only after providing adequate answers will the child be accepted for mithaq. On the eighteenth day of the Islamic month of zyl-Hajj, every Bohra congregation renews its mithaq vows together. The Dawoodi Bohra retain the Fatimid-era Tabular Islamic calendar which they believe matches perfectly with the lunar cycle, not requiring any correction.
In this calendar, the lunar year has days. Their odd-numbered months have 29 days and the even-numbered months have 30 days, except in a leap year when the 12th and final month has 30 days.
The office of the Da'i al-Mutlaq, known as Dawat-e-Hadiyah, is central to secular and religious affairs among Dawoodi Bohras. The present office is in Badri Mahal, Mumbai, which is represented by Jamaat Committees in all the cities with significant numbers of Dawoodi Bohra members. The Aamil is the president of the local Jamaat committee in his respective city.
He is appointed by the Dawat-e-Hadiyah, with the permission of the Dai al Mutlaq. There are several sub committees and trusts under the Jamaat committee, looking after different cts of Dawoodi Bohra administration. The worldwide number of Dawoodi Bohras is estimated at just over one million.
The word Bohra comes from the Gujarati word 'vohrvu' to tradein reference to their traditional occupation. The community has a rich legacy of Arabic literature while the main spoken language is Lisan al-Dawata fundamentally Gujarati dialect with considerable inclusion of vocabulary from Arabic and Urdu with some English.
The Script used is Perso-Arabic. In addition to the local languages, the Dawoodi Bohras have their own language called Lisan al-Dawat.
The Dawoodi Bohra maintain a distinct form of community attire. It is emphasized that Bohra men should adhere to the practice of the Prophet of growing a full beard. The women wear a two piece dress called the ridaa distinctive form of the commonly known burqawhich is distinguished from other forms of the veil due to it sporting bright colours and decorated with patterns and lace. The rida can generally be of any colour except black.
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The rida additionally differs from the burqa in that the rida does not call for covering of women's faces like the traditional veil. Dawoodi Bohras have a unique system of communal eating with groups of 8 or 9 people seated around a thaal a particularly large metal tray.
Each course of the meal is served for the people around the thaal to share. All heads should be covered during the meal.
Dawoodi Bohras are a subset of heynounce.com are traced as: Dawoodi, Taiyebi, Musta'li, Isma'ili, Shia, Muslims.: Evolution of the Dawoodi Bohras from other Shia sects. The Dawoodi Bohra sect is a Shia sect and is also referred to as the Tayyabi Musta'li Isma'ili sect. The Isma'ilis were split from the Ithna Ashari (Twelver) Shias over the succession issue of Imam Jafar Al-Sadiq.
Once everyone is seated, one serving member walks with water in a chelamchi lota a kind of basin and jug for everyone to wash their hands. At community feasts, they have desserts or meethas first and starters or khaaras next, followed by the main meal. Inthe community leadership under Mohammed Burhanuddin instituted community kitchens in Mumbai that deliver Bohra families one meal per day; the goal of this system is to provide at least one wholesome meal to every family as well as free women from the task of preparing food and providing them with time to pursue education or economic activities.
Bohras subscribe to the view that nobody should go to bed hungry, regularly organizing food drives to feed the homeless and hungry in cities throughout the world. At every town and city across the world, they have formed a Dana grain Committee, which is tasked to eliminate food wastage.
The emphasis is on not allowing even a single grain to go to waste. As a first step, the dana committee has developed RSVP apps and other web and mobile based platforms where invitees to a communal meal inform in advance if they will be able to attend.
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Dawoodi Bohras have their own jamaats local communities which are focused around a masjid or a markaz community centre where an "Amil" a representative appointed by the Syedna leads namaaz and gives discourses. The place where meals are served is called the jamaat khaana. The Jamaat khaana is generally adjoining the masjid complex.
During the 20th century, the Syednas established colleges, schools and madrasas in villages, towns and cities all around the world. A third campus was established in Nairobi, Kenya inand in a fourth campus was established in Marol MumbaiMaharashtra.
The 51st Dai Syedna Taher Saifuddin introduced modern subjects including sciences and arts to the curriculum in and renamed the academy Al Jamea tus Saifiyah. This process of modernization continued with his son and successor Syedna Mohammad Burhanuddin who introduced 'state-of-the-art' facilities such as the Mahad al-Zahra Quran training Institute. He also made it an International Baccalaureate Office.
The 51st Da'i Syedna Taher Saifuddin was a prolific scholar who wrote more than 40 volumes or 'Risalas' and has penned more than 10, verses in tribute to the Shia saints.
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Currently, there are 25 branches of the school worldwide. The Bohra faith places great importance on protecting and enhancing the natural environment and raising awareness of the need for sustainable development. Nazafat or cleanliness is an integral component of Islamic faith, and members of the Bohra community are urged to engage in clean-up drives, tree planting and other green initiatives to foster and promote a clean living environment wherever they reside; to avoiding waste and pollution; to recycle; and to nurture all forms of life.
Inthe Spiritual Leader of the Bohras, the late Syedna Mohammed Burhanuddin, established the Burhani Foundation, a charitable trust dedicated to making the preservation of the environment the responsibility of every Bohra, and to spread awareness of the relationship between environmental health and the health of people.
The Burhani Foundation seeks to enhance the natural environment through tree planting, water pollution controls, promoting techniques for sustainable development, raising public awareness and funding research. InSyedna Mufaddal Saifuddin, the 53rd and current Da'i al-Mutlaq, initiated a worldwide program to plantsaplings as a means of conserving the environment and raising awareness of environmental issues.
In Junethe Dawoodi Bohra community launched Project Rise, a global initiative established to help improve the lives of people that are marginalized, neglected or living in poverty. Project Rise was launched in Mumbai in partnership with Fight Hunger Foundation - part of the Action Against Hunger global network - to help alleviate hunger in some of the poorest parts of India; significantly raise health and nutrition levels of children and mothers suffering from severe malnutrition; and provide mothers, caregivers and local health workers with disease prevention techniques.
In SeptemberBohra volunteers helped people to recover from the devastating flooding and landslides in Kerala, Karnataka, Maharashtra and Gujarat by providing meals and essential supplies to affected families. In OctoberBohras in North America marked United Nations World Food Day by undertaking a range of Project Rise initiatives, including donating to local food banks and helping to feed vulnerable members of society.
Indian Dawoodi Bohra where girls are still circumcised
Many of the values at the core of Project Rise - including eradicating poverty and hunger, improving health and education, empowering women, avoiding waste, and preserving the natural environment - align closely with the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals.
For centuries, Bohras around the world have been living their daily lives according to these principles, regularly taking practical action to support members of society who most need help. India : the Dawoodi Bohra community received an award for organizing the largest zero waste religious event during the Ashara Mubaraka sermons in Indoreby the Golden Book of World Records.
Female Khatna Is Still Practiced Among Dawoodi Bohra Muslim Community In India - ABP News
The Dai al Mutlaqs and other pious dignitaries of the faith have been laid to rest in mausolea where thousands of community members visit every year, in Yemen and India.